A wood turning lathe is a great tool for creating functional furniture components, beautiful decorative wood projects, and even toys. They can range from hobby models that fit on a work bench to large industrial-sized machines weighing hundreds of pounds.
Regardless of the type of project you’re working on, there are some basic elements to remember when using a wood turning lathe. Follow these tips to get the most out of your lathe and start woodturning safely.
What is a lathe?
A lathe is a machine tool that allows craftsmen to turn wood into objects such as wooden beads or bowls. It is a versatile machine, capable of turning almost any kind of material, including plastic, metal and wood.
The main feature of a lathe is the spindle that consists of a rotating shaft. It is powered by a motor and can be adjusted to produce the power needed for the type of work being done.
Once the piece of wood is attached to the spindle, the craftsman can use a set of sharp tools to carve the wood into a desired shape. The tools rest on the lathe tool post and are pushed into the wood as it spins.
The basic equipment required to operate a lathe includes a headstock, spindle, chuck for holding the piece of wood, lathe bed, carriage and cross-slide, tool turret and tailstock. A moveable tailstock is especially useful for long pieces, like chair or stair spindles.
Whether you’re a beginner or an experienced turner, a wood turning lathe can be a fun and rewarding hobby. It takes a little bit of skill and practice to master it, but once you get the hang of it, there are no limits to what you can create.
If you’re a beginner, start with smaller projects. A bowl, for example, is a great first project because it’s easy to shape and practice the different profiles on your lathe.
Once you’re comfortable with the basics, try turning a wand for a fun gift or toy. You can also make more complex wand designs to push the boundaries of your skills.
As a beginner, it’s a good idea to begin with small pieces of stock, about 2 foot (0.6 m) long for an intermediate or medium-sized lathe. This is because longer work pieces are harder to balance and maintain a smooth diameter along their length.
A lathe is a powerful machine that can be dangerous to operate, especially if safeguards are not in place. The risk of serious injury or death can be minimised by following safety procedures outlined in the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standards and all original equipment operating manuals for the machinery.
A common hazard is contact with the cutting edge of a tool or a piece of rotating wood. This can cause severe cuts if you move your hand quickly over the edge or workpiece.
Another potential hazard is the risk of being caught in or struck by moving parts or stock bars. This can be minimised by guarding the machinery and using adequate chip screens.
It’s also important to ensure that blanks are selected carefully. Avoid turning stock with splits, loose knots or other defects that can become projectiles during turning.
If you’re looking to add a wood turning lathe to your shop, you need to keep it in good working order. Otherwise, you could end up paying a lot for repairs or overhauls later.
Every metal machine is susceptible to rust, so you must take precautions when using your lathe. A buildup of rust on the ways, bed rails, banjo, and tailstock can cause serious damage to the machinery.
Fortunately, some tools can get rid of rust on your wood lathe. Spraying a rust remover solution can clear the rust, and then fine sandpaper (400 grit or lower) can be used to further smooth the affected areas.
Other key maintenance tasks include keeping your lathe free of dust and debris. Dust can cling to the lubrication and workpieces, as well as way wipes.